Science and Meta-science


This books examines the relationship between science, values, metaphysics, and culture. In the section devoted to the philosophy of science, the characteristics of the positivistic epistemology as well as the critical views of Popper and Cohen regarding the influence of meta-scientific affairs such as values and metaphysics on science are carefully examined. 

Reviewing the ideas of such sociologists of knowledge as Marx, Dilthey, Nietzsche, Max Scheler, and Karl Mannheim as well as the strong project in the sociology of knowledge, their views regarding the influence of society on knowledge and the social identity of knowledge are examined in another section. Investigating the role of presuppositions in understanding through examining hermeneutics and the viewpoints of Schleiermacher, Dilthey, and Gadamer is another issue which is fully discussed in a separate section. 

In Postmodernism section, the views of Nietzsche, Heidegger, Frankfurt school, Habermas, Michel Foucault, Lyotard, and the traditionalists concerning the influence of power and Myth on knowledge are examined.

The effect of values, metaphysics, culture and other meta-scientific affairs on knowledge is facing with such challenges as self-conflict, relativism, and discourse aversion which are fully discussed in book. Finally, the chosen view of the author himself is proposed as the “Demarcation Theory”, according to which the intervention of such meta-scientific affairs as metaphysics, values, and culture in scientific researches is inevitable in some areas which are thereafter referred to as “The Permissible areas” of the relationship between science and meta-science, being in contrast with the impermissible ones based on which any intervention of the meta-scientific affairs in scientific researches is logically impermissible and unacceptable. What matters most in this theory is the limitation of the permissible and impermissible areas in such a relationship and the determination of some indicators for demarcating those areas which can help us identify the reasonable areas for the intervention of metaphysics, values, and culture in scientific studies.

Demarcating such areas is certainly a necessary condition for producing any religious-based and domestically value-driven human sciences which would provide us with a unique opportunity to mingle religion and science.

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